Restoring FireRestoring Fire

We are currently synthesizing the available information regarding Fire and Forest Restoration in the Northern Rockies. If you are aware of articles, reports, or books relevant to this region that are not listed here, please let us know (AUTHORS).


Agee, J. K. 1997. Fire management for the 21st century. In Franklin, J.F. and K. Kohm, editors, Creating a forestry for the 21st century. Island Press, Washington, D.C, USA.

Arno, S. F. 1988. Fire ecology and its management implications in ponderosa pine forests. Pp. 133-139 in D. M. Baumgartner and J. E. Lotan, eds., Ponderosa pine: the species and its management: symposium proceedings. Washington State University, Pulliam, Washington, USA.

Arno, S. F., and J. K. Brown. 1991. Overcoming the paradox in managing wildland fire. Western Wildlands 17:40-46.

Bailey, D. W., and B. J. Losensky. 1996. Fire in western Montana ecosystems: a strategy for accomplishing ecosystem management through the effective use of prescribed fire in the Lolo National Forest. Lolo National Forest, Missoula, Montana, USA.

Barbouletos, C. S., Morelan, L. Z., Carroll F. O. 1998. We will not wait: Why prescribed fire must be implemented on the Boise National Forest. Pp. 27-30 in T. Pruden and L. A. Brennan, editors, Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference. Tallahassee. Florida, USA.

Bash, J. S., and Ryan, C. M. 2002. Stream restoration and enhancement projects: is anyone monitoring? Environmental Management 29:877-885.

Beechie, T., and S. Bolton. 1999. An approach to restoring salmonid habitat-forming processes in Pacific Northwest watersheds. Fisheries 24:6-15.

Bisson, P. A., R. E. Bilby, M. D. Bryant, C. A. Dolloff, G. B. Grette, R. A. House, M. L. Murphy, K. V. Koski, and J. R. Sedell. 1987. Large woody debris in forested streams in the Pacific Northwest: past, present, and future. Pages 143-190 in E. O. Salo, and T.W. Cundy, editors, Streamside management: forestry and fishery interactions. Contribution 57, Institute of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Bisson, P. A., G. H. Reeves, R. E. Bilby, and R. J. Naiman. 1997. Watershed management and salmon dynamics: desired future conditions. In D.A. Stouder, P.A. Bisson, and R.J. Naiman, editors, Pacific salmon and their ecosystems. Chapman and Hall, New York, New York, USA.

Boss, A., M. Dunbar, J. Gacey, P. Hanna, M. Roth, and O. D. Grossarth. 1983. Elk- timber relationships of west-central Idaho. USDA Forest Service, Boise and Payette National Forests, USDI, and BLM.

Brown, J. K. 1989. Could the 1988 fire in Yellowstone have been avoided through prescribed burning? Fire Management Notes 50:7-13.

Brown, J. K. 1992-1993. A case for management ignitions in wilderness. Fire Management Notes 53/54:3-8.

Brown, J. K., S. F. Arno, S. W. Barrett, and J. P. Menakis. 1994. Comparing the prescribed natural fire program with presettlement fires in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness. International Journal of Wildland Fire 4:157-168.

Brown, J. K., and L. S. Bradshaw. 1994. Comparisons of particulate emissions and smoke impacts from presettlement, full suppression, and prescribed natural fire periods in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness. International Journal of Wildland Fire 4:143-155.

Brown, R. Thinning, Fire and Forest Restoration: A Science-based Approach for National Forests in the Interior Northwest. Report available at

Cavanagh, N., T. McDaniels, L. Axelrod, and P. Slovic. 2000. Perceived ecological risks to water environments from selected forest industry activities. Forest Science 46:344-355.

Choromanska, U. and T. H. DeLuca. 2001. Prescribed fire alters the impact of wildfire on soil biochemical processes in a ponderosa pine forest. Soil Science Society of America 65:232-238.

DellaSala, D. A., and E. Frost. 2001. An ecologically based strategy for fire and fuels management in National Forest roadless areas. Fire Management Today 61:12-23. FULL TEXT(.pdf).

DellaSala, D. A., D. M. Olson, S. E. Barth, S. L. Crane, and S. A. Pimm. 1995. Forest health: moving beyond the rhetoric to restore healthy landscapes in the inland Northwest. Wildlife Society Bulletin 23:346-356.

DeLong, S. C., and W. B. Kessler. 2000. Ecological characteristic of mature forest remnants left by wildfire. Forest Ecology and Management 131:93-106.

DeLuca, T. H. and K. L. Zouhar. 2000. Influence of selection harvest and prescribed burning on the soil nitrogen status of ponderosa pine forests. Forest Ecology and Management 138:263-271.

Espinosa, F., J. Rhodes, and D. McCullough. 1997. The failure of existing plans to protect salmon habitat in the Clearwater National Forest in Idaho. Journal of Environmental Management 49:205-230.

Finney, M. A. 2001. Design of regular landscape fuel treatment patterns for modifying fire growth and behavior. Forest Science 47:219-228.

Franklin, J. F. 1998. The natural, the clearcut, and the future. Northwest Science S72:134-138.

Franklin, J.F., T. A. Spies, R. Van Pelt, et al. 2002. Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems with silvicultural implications, using Douglas-fir forests as an example. Forest Ecology and Management 155:399-423.

Forman, R., and L. Alexander. 1998. Roads and their major ecological effects. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29:207-231.

Fule, P. Z., W. W. Covington, and M. M. Moore. 1997. Discovering reference conditions for ecosystem management of southwestern ponderosa pine forests. Ecological Applications 7:895-908.

Graham, R. T., A. Harvey, T. B. Jain and J. R. Tonn. 1999. The Effects of Thinning and Similar Stand Treatments on Fire Behavior in Western Forests. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report, PNW-GTR-463.

Hardy, C. C., and S. F. Arno. 1995. The use of fire in forest restoration. USDA Forest Service, (source?).

Harr, R., and R. Nichols. 1993. Stabilizing forest roads to help restore fish habitats: a northwest Washington example. Fisheries 18:18-22.

Heinselman, M. L. 1985. Fire regimes and management options in ecosystems with large high-intensity fires. Pp. 81-86 in J. E. Lotan, B. M. Kilgore, W. C. Fischer, and R. W. Mutch, editors, Proceedings - symposium and workshop on wilderness fire. USDA Forest Service Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report, INT-182.

Hourdequin, M. 2001. Wilderness fire restoration and management: an annotated reading list. Volume 1 in Linking wilderness research and management. (Wright, Vita, series ed.) Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-79-VOL 1. Fort Collins, CO, USA. FULL TEXT (.pdf)

Jones, J.A., F.J. Swanson, B.C. Wemple, and K.U. Snyder. 2000. Effects of roads on hydrology, geomorphology, and disturbance patches in stream networks. Conservation Biology 14:76-85.

King, J. G. 1993. Sediment production and transport in forested watersheds in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Pp. 13-18 in Proceedings of the technical workshop on sediments. Terrene Institute, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.

King, J. G. 1989. Streamflow responses to road building and harvesting: a comparison with the equivalent clearcut area procedure. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper, INT-401.King, J. G. 1994. Streamflow and sediment yield responses to forest practices in north Idaho. Pp. 213-220 in D. M. Baumgartner, J. E. Lotan, and J. R. Tonn, editors, Interior cedar-hemlock-white pine forests: ecology and management. Washington State University Cooperative Extension, Pullman Washington, USA.

Landres, P. B., P. Morgan, and F. J. Swanson. 1999. Overview of the use of natural variability concepts in managing ecological systems. Ecological Applications 9:1179-1188.

Losensky, J., V. Applegate, J. Deibert, S. Barndt, J. Williams, and D. Berglund. 1987. A strategy to implement ecosystem maintenance burning on the Lolo National Forest.

Manfredo, M. J., M. Fishbein, G. E. Haas, and A. E. Watson. 1990. Attitudes towards prescribed fire policies: the public is widely divided in its support. Journal of Forestry 88:19-23.

MacNeil, J. S. 2000. Forest fire plan kindles debate. Science 289:1448.

Madej, M. 2001. Erosion and sediment delivery following removal of forest roads. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26:175-190.

McRae, D. J., L. C. Duchesne, and T. J. Lynham. 2001. Comparisons between wildfire and forest harvesting and their implications in forest management. Environmental Review 9:223-260.

Megahan, W. F., J. G. King, and K. A. Seyedbagheri. 1995. Hydrologic and erosional responses of a granite watershed to helicopter logging and broadcast burning. Forest Science 44:777-795.

Megahan, W., M. Wilson, and S. Monsen. 2001. Sediment production from granitic cutslopes on forest roads in Idaho, USA. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26:153-163.

Millar, C.I. and W.J. Libby. 1989. Restoration: Disneyland or a native ecosystem: A question of genetics. Fremontia.

Millar, C.I., and W.B. Woolfenden. 1999. The role of climate change in interpreting historical variability. Ecological Applications 9:1207-1216.

Montgomery, D. 1997. River management - What's best on the banks? Nature 388:328-329.

Muir, P. S. 1993. Disturbance effects on structure and tree species composition of Pinus contorta forests in western Montana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23:1617-1625.

Norris, L. A. 1990. An overview and synthesis of knowledge concerning natural and prescribed fire in Pacific Northwest forests. Pp. 7-22 in J. D. Walstad, S. R. Radosevich, and D. V. Sandberg, editors, Natural and prescribed fire in Pacific Northwest forests. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.

Norum, R. A. 1976. Fire intensity-fuel reduction relationships associated with understory burning in larch/Douglas-fir. Tall Timbers Ecology Conference 14:559-572.

Parsons, D. J., and P. B. Landres. 1998. Restoring natural fire to wilderness. How are we doing? Pp. 366-372 in T. Pruden and L. A. Brennan, Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference. Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

Perry, D.A. 1998. The scientific basis of forestry. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29:435-66.

Pollet, J and P. N. Omi. In press. Effect of thinning and prescribed burning on crown fire severity in ponderosa pine forests. International Journal of Wildland Fire.

Reeberg, P., M. Keifer, and T. Lablanca. 1995. The western region fire monitoring program- Long term monitoring in fire maintained ecosystems. Pp. 199-207 in M. I. Hannock, editor, The Conference on Research and Resource Management. George Wright Society, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Reeves, G. H., L. E. Benda, K. M. Burnett, P. A. Bisson, and J. R. Sedell. 1995. A disturbance-based ecosystem approach to maintaining and restoring freshwater habitats of evolutionarily significant units of anadromous salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. American Fisheries Society Symposium 17:334-349. ABSTRACT

Reunhardt, E. D. 1998. Analyzing effects of management actions including salvage, fuel treatments, and prescribed fire on fuel dynamics, and fire potential. Pp. 206-208 in T. Pruden and L. A. Brennan, Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference. Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

Richards, S. A., H. P. Possinhgham, and J. Tizard. 1999. Optimal fire management for maintaining community diversity. Ecological Applications 9:880-892.

Romme, W. H., E. H. Everham, L. E. Frelich, M. A. Mortiz, and R. E. Sparks. 1998.

Are large, infrequent disturbances qualitatively different from small, frequent disturbances? Ecosystems 1:524-534.

Rotenberry, J. T., R. J. Cooper, J. M. Wunderle, and K. G. Smith. 1992. Incorporating effects of natural disturbances in managed ecosystems. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report RM-229.

Rothrock, J., P. Barten, and G. Ingram. 1998. Land use and aquatic biointegrity in the Blackfoot River watershed, Montana. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 34:565-581.

Saab, V. A., J. G. Dudley, and D. Pilliod. 2002. Investigating the use of prescribed fire to restore fish and wildlife habitat in the South Fork Salmon River (SFSR) Subbasin. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Progress Report.

Six, D., M. Vander Meer, T. DeLuca, and P. Kolb. 2002. Pine engraver, Ipis pini (Say), colonization of logging residues created using alternative slash management systems in western Montana. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 17:96-100.

Sloan, J. P. 19?? Historical density and stand structure of a old growth forest in the Boise basin of Central Idaho. 258-67.

Smalley, J., B. Mutch, and J. L. Cook. 2000. Firewise chat: can your home survive a wildfire? Wildfire News and Notes 14:4-5.

Stark, N., and J. Sasich. 1984. Studies of soil impacts in a Ninemile Creek Watershed Plantation. Unpublished report on file at: USDA Forest Service, Lolo National Forest, Missoula, Montana, USA.

Stephens, S. L. 1998. Evaluation of the effects of silvicultural and fuels treatments on potential fire behaviour in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests. Forest Ecology and Management 105:21-35.

Swezy, D. M., and J. K. Agee. 1991. Prescribed fire effects on fine root and tree mortality in old growth ponderosa pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21:626-634.

Tang, S., J. Franklin, and D. Montgomery. 1997. Forest harvest patterns and landscape disturbance processes. Landscape Ecology 12:349-363.

Tiedemann, A. R., Klammedson J. O., Bull E. L. 2000. Solution of forest health problems with prescribed fire: Are forest productivity and wildlife at risk? Forest Ecology and Management 127:1-18.

Tomascak, W. 1991. Improving a prescribed natural fire program: the Northern Region's approach. Fire Management Notes 52:6-8.

Trombulak, S. C and C. A Frissell. 2000. Review of Ecological Effects of Roads on Terrestrial and Aquatic Communities. Conservation Biology 14:18-30.

Western Governors' Association. 2001. A collaborative approach for reducing wildland fire risks to communities and the environment: 10-year comprehensive strategy. Online, August 2001. FULL TEXT (.pdf)

Wondzell, S. 2001. The influence of forest health and protection treatments on erosion and stream sedimentation in forested watersheds of eastern Oregon and Washington. Northwest Science 75:128-140.


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