We are currently synthesizing the available information regarding the Effects of Fire Exclusion in the Northern Rockies Forests. If you are aware of articles, reports, or books relevant to this region that are not listed here, please let us know (AUTHORS).
Allan L. Carroll; Stephen W. Taylor and Jacques Régnière. 2003. Climate change and range expansion by the mountain pine beetle: tomorrow's problem or today's reality. Proceedings of the Canadian Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations Conference. February 17-19 2003, Prince George, B.C.
Arno, S. F. 1986. Whitebark cone crops - a diminishing source of wildlife food? Western Journal of Applied Forestry 1:92-94.
Arno, S. F., and J. K. Brown. 1991. Overcoming the paradox in managing wildland fire. Western Wildlands 17:40-46.
Arno, S. F., and G. E. Gruell. 1986. Douglas-fir encroachment into mountain grasslands in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management 39:272-275.
Arno, S. F., D. J. Parsons, and R. E. Keane. 2000. Mixed-severity fire regimes in the Northern Rocky Mountains: consequences of fire exclusion and options for the future. Pp. 225-232 in D. N. Cole, S. F. McCool, W. T. Borrie, J. O'Loughlin, compilers, Wilderness science in a time of change conference - Volume 5: wilderness ecosystems, threats and management. USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station, Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-5.
Baker, W. L. 1993. Spatially heterogeneous multi-scale response of landscapes to fire suppression. Oikos 66:66-71.
Brown, J. K. 1983. The “unnatural fuel buildup” issue. Pp. 127-128 in Proceedings of a symposium and workshop on wilderness fire. USDA Forest Service Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-182.
Brown, J. K., and C. D. Bevins. 1986. Surface fuel loadings and predicted fire behavior for vegetation types in the northern Rocky Mountains. USDA Forest Service Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-358.
Burton, T. A., et al. 1998. Resources at risk: A fire based hazard risk assessment for the Boise National Forest. Pp. 337-341 in T. Pruden and L. A. Brennan, editors, Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference. Tallahassee, Florida, USA.
Choromanska, U. and T.H. DeLuca. 2003. Changes in soil nitrogen chemistry with prolonged fire exclusion in ponderosa pine forests. In Prep.
Gaikowski, M., S. Hamilton, K. Buhl, S. McDonald, and C. Summers. 1996. Acute toxicity of three fire-retardant and two fire-suppressant foam formulations to the early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15:1365-1375.
Duchesne, L.C.; Hawkes, B.C. 2000. Chapter 3 - Fire in Northern Ecosystems. Pages 35-50, In: Wildland Fire in Ecosystems - Effects of fire on flora. Brown, J. and J. Kapler Smith, Editors, USDA, For. Serv., Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, Utah, Gen. Tech. Report RMRS-GTR-42-volume 2, 257 p.
Gruell, G. E. 1983. Fire and vegetative trends on the Northern Rockies: interpretations from 1871-1982 photographs. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report, INT-158.
Gruell, G. E. 1986. Post-1900 mule deer irruptions in the Intermountain West: principle causes and influences. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report, INT-206.
Gruell, G. E., W. C. Schmidt, S. F. Arno, and W. J. Reich. 1982. Seventy years of vegetative change in a managed ponderosa pine forest in western Montana: implications for resource management. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report, INT-130.
Habeck, J.R. 1976. Forests, fuels, and fire in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Idaho. Proceedings of Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 14:305-352.
Hessburg, P. F., Smith, B. G., and Salter, R. B. 1999. Detecting change in forest spatial patterns. Ecological Applications 9:1232-1252.
Hessburg, P. F., Smith, B. G., and Salter, R. B., Ottmar, R. D., Alvarado, E. 2000. Recent changes (1930's-1990's) in spatial patterns of interior northwest forests, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 136:53-83.
Houghton, R. A., J. L. Hackler, and K. T. Lawrence. 2000. Changes in terrestrial carbon storage in the United States. 2: The role of fire and fire management. Global Ecology and Biogeography 9:145-170.
Hawkes, B.C. 2001. Interactions between fire and insects: Management implications. Abstract In: Proceedings of Natural disturbance and forest management: What's happening and where it's going, March 5-7, 2001, Edmonton, AB, co-sponsored by Foothills Model Forest and the Sustainable Forest Management Network.
Hawkes, B.C. 2001. Consequences of attempted fire exclusion on forest health - Fire management implications. Pages 27-29, In: Proceedings of 2000 Interior West Fire Council Annual Meeting, Oct. 3-5, 2000, Edmonton, AB, Alexander, M.E.; Driscoll, D.; Heathcott, M.; George, E. technical co-ordinators, Environment, Land and Forest Service, Forest Protection Division and Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB.
Johnson, E. A., K. Miyanishi, and S. R. J. Bridge. 2001. Wildfire regime in the boreal forest and the idea of suppression and fuel buildup. Conservation Biology 15:1554-1557.
Online at: http://www.earthscape.org/r2/scb/scb15_6/joe01/joe01.pdf
Keane, R.E.; Ryan, K.C.; Veblen, T.; Allen, C.D.; Logan, J.; Hawkes, B.C. 2002. The Cascading Effects of Fire Exclusion in Rocky Mountain Ecosystems - Chapter 7, pages 133-152, in "Rocky Mountain Futures: An Ecological Perspective" Jill Baron , editor.
Keane, R.E.; Ryan, K.C.; Veblen, T.; Allen, C.D.; Logan, J.; Hawkes, B.C. 2002. Cascading Effects of Fire Exclusion in Rocky Mountain Ecosystems - A Literature Review. US Dept. of Agriculture, For. Serv., Rocky Mtn. Res. Sta., Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-91, 24 p. Online at: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr091.html.
Keeley, J. E., and C. J. Fotheringham. 2001. History and management of crown-fire ecosystems: summary and response. Conservation Biology 15:1561-1567.
Kolb, P. F., and D. L. Adams. 1998. Impacts of fire exclusion on forest dynamics and processes in Central Idaho. Pp. 210-218 in T. Pruden and L. A. Brennan editors, Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, Tallahassee, Florid, USA.
Landsburg, J. D. 1992. Effects of disruption of fire regimes on site productivity. Fire in Northwest ecosystems: Exploring emerging issues (proceedings). Oregon State University, Portland, Oregon, USA.
Losensky, B. J. 1990. A comparison of the 1988 fire season to the historical role of fire for the Bob Marshall-Scapegoat Wilderness Complex. Unpublished report on file at: USDA Forest Service, Lolo National Forest, Missoula, Montana, USA.
Lunan, J. S., J. R. Habeck, R. S. McAlpine, and T. G. Eiber. 1973. The effects of fire exclusion on ponderosa pine communities in Glacier National Park, Montana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 3:574-579.
McCune, B. 1983. Fire frequency reduced two orders of magnitude in the Bitterroot Canyons, Montana (USA). Canadian Journal of Forest Research 13:212-218.
McCune, B., and T. F. H. Allen. 1985. Will similar forests develop on similar sites? Canadian Journal of Botany 63:367-376.
McDonald, S., S. Hamilton, K. Buhl, and J. Heisinger. 1997. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to Hyalella azteca (Saussare). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16:1370-1376.
Miyanishi, K., and E. A. Johnson. 2001. A re-examination of the effects of fire suppression in the boreal forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31:1462-1466.
Newland, J. A., and T. H. Deluca. 2000. Influence of fire on native nitrogen-fixing plants and soil nitrogen status in ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests in western Montana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30:274-282.
Norris, L. A., and W. L. Webb. 1989. Effects of fire retardant on water quality. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, General Technical Report, PSW-109.
Rollins, M., T. Swetnam, and P. Morgan. 2000. Twentieth-century fire patterns in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Area, Idaho/Montana, and the Gila/Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex, New Mexico. Pp. xx-xx in D. N. Cole, S. F. McCool, W. T. Borrie, J. O'Loughlin, compilers, Wilderness science in a time of change conference - Volume 5: wilderness ecosystems, threats and management. USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station, Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-5. Online at http://tree.ltrr.arizona.edu/~tswetnam/tws-pdf/Rollins_5-34.pdf
Romme, W. H., E. H. Everham, L. E. Frelich, M. A. Mortiz, and R. E. Sparks. 1998. Are large, infrequent disturbances qualitatively different from small, frequent disturbances? Ecosystems 1:524-534.
Safranyik, L.; Linton, D.A.; Shore, T.L.; Hawkes, B.C. 2001. The effects of prescribed burning on mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. CFS Pacific Forestry Centre Info Report, BC-X-391, 8 p.
Schuler, J. H. 1968. The composition and distribution of Douglas-fir communities in the Pattee Canyon area, Missoula, Montana. Dissertation, University of Montana, Missoula, USA.
Smalley, J., B. Mutch, and J. L. Cook. 2000. Firewise chat: can your home survive a wildfire? Wildfire News & Notes 14:4-5.
Smith, H. Y., and S. F. Arno. 1999. Eighty-eight years of change in a managed ponderosa pine forest. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-23.
Steele, R., S. F. Arno, and K. Geier-Hayes. 1986. Wildfire patterns change in central Idaho's ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forest. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 1:16-18.
Taylor, S.W.; Baxter, G.J.; Hawkes, B.C. 1998. Modeling forest succession on fire behavior potential in southeastern British Columbia. pages 2059-2071, in: III International Confer. on Forest Fire Research, 14th Conference on Fire and Forest Met., November 16-20, 1998, Luso, Portugal.
U. S. Senate Subcommittee on Forests and Public Land Management. 2001. Summer wildfires of 2000: hearings before the Subcommittee on Forests and Public Land Management of the Committee on Energy and Natural resources, United States Senate, 106th Congress, second session on federal agency preparedness for the summer 2000 fires and the President's report on managing the impacts of wildfires on communities and the environment. USGPO, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, D. C., USA.
Wondzell, S. 2001. The influence of forest health and protection treatments on erosion and stream sedimentation in forested watersheds of eastern Oregon and Washington. Northwest Science 75:128-140.