We are currently synthesizing the available information regarding the Effects of Forest Fire on Plants in the Northern Rockies. If you are aware of articles, reports, or books relevant to this region that are not listed here, please let us know (AUTHORS).

Lodgepole regrowth after the 1988 fires, Yellowstone National Park AVAILABLE LITERATURE:

Agee, J. K. 1993. Fire ecology of Pacific Northwest forests. Island Press, Washington DC, USA.

Alexander, M. E., and F. G. Hawksworth. 1975. Wildland fires and dwarf mistletoes: a literature review of ecology and prescribed burning. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report, RM-14.

Antos, J. A., and D. B. Zobel. 1984. Ecological implications of below ground morphology of nine coniferous forest herbs. Botanical Gazette 145:508-517.

Baker, F. S. 1929. Effect of excessively high temperatures on coniferous reproduction. Journal of Forestry 27:949-975.

Binkley, D., K. Cromack, Jr., and R. L. Fredricksen. 1982. Nitrogen accretion and availability in some snowbrush ecosystems. Forest Science 28:720-724.

Boyce, R. B. 1985. Conifer germination and seedling establishment on burned and unburned seedbeds. Thesis. University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.

Bradley, A. F. 1984. Rhizome morphology, soil distribution, and the potential fire survival of 8 species. Thesis. The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana.

Busse, M. D., P. H. Cochran, and J. W. Barrett. 1996. Changes in ponderosa pine site productivity following removal of understory vegetation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 60:1614-1621.

Camp, A.E.; Oliver, C.D.; Hessburg, P.F.; and Everett, R.L. 1997. Predicting late-successional fire refugia from physiography and topography. Forest Ecology and Management 95:63-77.

Christiansen, E., R. H. Waring, A. A. Berryman. 1987. Resistance of conifers to bark beetle attack: searching for general relationships. Forest Ecology and Management 22:89-106.

Crane, M. F., J. R. Habeck, and W. C. Fischer. 1983. Early postfire revegetation in a western Montana Douglas-fir forest. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper INT-319.

DeSpain, D. G. 2001. Dispersal ecology of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in its native environment as related to Swedish forestry. Forest Ecology and Management 141:59-68.

Fischer, W. C., and A. F. Bradley. 1987. Fire ecology of western Montana forest habitat types. USDA Forest Service Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-223.

Flinn, M. A., and J. K. Pringle. 1983. Heat tolerance of rhizomes of several understory species. Canadian Journal of Botany 61:452-457.

Flinn, M. A., and R. W. Wein. 1977. Depth of underground plant organs and theoretical survival during fire. Canadian Journal of Botany 66:150-155.

Flint, L. E., and S. W. Childs. 1987. Effect of shading, mulching and vegetation control on Douglas-fir seedling growth and soil water supply. Forest Ecology and Management 18:189-203.

Gara, R. I. 1988. Interactions between fires, fungi, mountain pine beetles, and lodgepole pine in south-central Oregon. The Northwest Environmental Journal 4:355-8.

Gray, A. N., and J. F. Franklin. 1997. Effects of multiple fires on the structure of southwestern Washington forests. Northwest Science 71:174-185.

Habeck, J. R., and R. W. Mutch. 1973. Fire-dependent forests in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Quaternary Research 3:408-424.

Harrington, M. G. 1977. The influence of some environmental factors on initial establishment and growth of ponderosa pine seedlings. Thesis. The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana.

Houghton, R. A., J. L. Hackler, and K. T. Lawrence. 2000. Changes in terrestrial carbon storage in the United States. 2: The role of fire and fire management. Global Ecology and Biogeography 9:145-170.

Hungerford, R. D., and R. E. Babbitt. 1987. Overstory removal and residue treatments affect soil surface, air, and soil temperatures: implications for seedling survival. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Research Paper INT-377.

Hutchins, H. E., and R. M. Lanner. 1982. The central role of Clark's Nutcracker in the dispersal and establishment of whitebark pine. Oecologia 55:192-201.

Keane, R. E., and S. F. Arno. 1993. Rapid decline of whitebark pine in western Montana: evidence from 20-year remeasurements. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 8:44-47.

Keane, R. E., S. F. Arno, and J. K. Brown. 1990. Simulating cumulative fire effects in ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests. Ecology 71:189-203.

Keane, R. E. 2001. Can the fire-dependent whitebark pine be saved? Whitebark pine: an invaluable high-mountain resource. Fire Management Today 61:17-20.

Keane, R. E., P. Morgan, and J. P. Menakis. 1994. Landscape assessment of the decline of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in the Bob Marshall Wilderness complex, Montana, USA. Northwest Science 68:213-229.

Keown, L.D. 1985. Case study: The Independence Fire, Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness. Pp. 239-247 in J. F. Lotan, B. M. Kilgore, W. C. Fischer, and R. F. Mutch, editors. Proceedings of a symposium and workshop on Wilderness Fire. USDA Forest Service Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report, INT-GTR-182.

Kristopher T. 1999. Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis) decline and restoration in Glacier National Park, Montana. Thesis. University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota, USA.

Lamont, B. B. 1993. Plant senescence in fire-prone perennials. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8:147.

Lamont, B. B., E. T. F. Witkowski, and N. J. Enright. 1993. Post-fire litter microsites: safe for seeds, unsafe for seedlings. Ecology 74:501-12.

Larsen, J. A. 1929. Fires and forest succession in the Bitterroot Mountains of northern Idaho. Ecology 10:67-76.

Lehmkuhl, J.F., R. L. Everett, and P.F. Hessburg. 1995. Wildland fire and management of plants and animals. Western Forester 40:14-15.

Lesica, P. 1996. Effects of fire on the demography of the endangered, geophytic herb Silene spaldinghii (Caryophyllaceae). American Journal of Botany 86:996-1003.

Lotan, J. E. 1973. Regeneration of lodgepole pine forests in Northern Rocky Mountains. Pp. 516-535 in E. M. Baumgartner, editor, in Management of lodgepole pine ecosystems: symposium proceedings. Washington State University, Cooperative Extensions Service, Pullman, Washington, USA.

Lyon, L. J. 1984. The Sleeping Child Burn - 21 years of postfire change. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper INT-330.

Lyon, L. J., and P. F. Stickney. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. Pp. 355-375 in Proceedings of the Montana Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference and Fire and Land Management Symposium No. 14.

McLean, A. 1969. Fire resistance of forest species as influenced by root systems. Journal of Range Management 22:120-122.

McNabb, D. H. and J. M. Geist. 1979. Nitrogen fixation potential of native lupines in western conifer ecosystems. P. 217 in Agronomy Abstracts, American Society of Agronomy, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Merrill, E. H., H. F. Mayland, and J. M. Peek. 1980. Effects of a fall wildfire on herbaceous vegetation on xeric sites in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Idaho. Journal of Range Management 33:363-367.

Merrill, E. H., H. F. Mayland, and J. M. Peek. 1982. Shrub responses after fire in an Idaho ponderosa pine community. Journal of Wildlife Management 46:496-502.

Miller, M. 1977. Response of blue huckleberry to prescribed fires in a western Montana larch-fir forest. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Note INT-188.

Morgan, P., and L. F. Neuenschwander. 1988. Shrub response to high and low severity burns following clearcutting in northern Idaho. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 3:5-9.

Muir, P. S. 1993. Disturbance effects on structure and tree species composition of Pinus contorta forests in western Montana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23:1617-1625.

Newland, J. A., and T. H. Deluca. 2000. Influence of fire on native nitrogen-fixing plants and soil nitrogen status in ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests in western Montana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30:274-282.

Noste, N. V., and C. L. Bushey. 1987. Fire response of shrubs of dry forest habitat types in Montana and Idaho. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report, INT-239.

Petraitis, P. S., R. E. Latham, and R. A. Niesenbaum. 1989. The maintenance of species diversity by disturbance. Quarterly Review of Biology 64:393-418.

Pickett, S. T. A. 1976. Succession: an evolutionary interpretation. American Naturalist 110:107-119.

Potts, Donald F. 1985. Water potential of forest duff and its possible relationship to regeneration success in the northern Rocky Mountains. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 15:464-468.

Ryan, K. C., and E. D. Reinhardt. 1988. Predicting postfire mortality of seven western conifers. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 18:1291-1297.

Schmoldt, D., D. Peterson, R. Keane, J. Lenihan, D. McKenzie, D. Weise, and D. Sandberg. 1999. Assessing the effects of fire disturbance on ecosystems: A scientific agenda for research and management. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, Oregon.

Schuler, J. H. 1968. The composition and distribution of Douglas-fir communities in the Pattee Canyon area, Missoula, Montana. Dissertation, University of Montana, Missoula, USA.

Shearer, R. C. 1967. Insolation limits initial establishment of western larch seedlings. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Research Note INT-64.

Simard, A. J. 1991. Fire severity, changing scales, and how things hang together. International Journal of Wildland Fire 1:23-34.

Stahelin, R. 1943. Factors influencing the natural restocking of high altitude burns by coniferous trees in the Central Rocky Mountains. Ecology 24:19-30.

Stewart, O. C. 1951. Burning and natural vegetation in the United States. Geographical Review 41:317-20.

Stickney, P. F. 1986. First decade plant succession following the Sundance forest fire, northern Idaho. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report, INT-97.

Stickney, P. F. 1990. Early development of vegetation following holocaustic fire in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. Northwest Science 64:243-246.

Tonn, J. R., et al. 2000. Miller Creek Ecosystem recovery in a Western Montana forest 30 years after prescribed burning and wildfire. Fire and Forest Ecology: Innovative silviculture and vegetation management. Tallahassee. FL: Tall Timbers Research Station; 67-73.

Werner, P. A. 1976. Ecology of plant populations in successional environments. Systematic Botany 1:246-268.

Whittle et al. 1997. The importance of buried seeds and vegetative propagation in the development of postfire plant communities. Environmental Review 5:79-87.

Wright, H. E., Jr., and M. L. Heinselman. 1973. The ecological role of fire in natural conifer forests of western and northern North America: introduction. Quaternary Research 3:319-328.

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